How do you Unit Test Python DataFrames

Unit TestingPandasNumpyDataframe

Unit Testing Problem Overview

How do i unit test python dataframes?

I have functions that have an input and output as dataframes. Almost every function I have does this. Now if i want to unit test this what is the best method of doing it? It seems a bit of an effort to create a new dataframe (with values populated) for every function?

Are there any materials you can refer me to? Should you write unit tests for these functions?

Unit Testing Solutions

Solution 1 - Unit Testing

While Pandas' test functions are primarily used for internal testing, NumPy includes a very useful set of testing functions that are documented here: NumPy Test Support.

These functions compare NumPy arrays, but you can get the array that underlies a Pandas DataFrame using the values property. You can define a simple DataFrame and compare what your function returns to what you expect.

One technique you can use is to define one set of test data for a number of functions. That way, you can use Pytest Fixtures to define that DataFrame once, and use it in multiple tests.

In terms of resources, I found this article on Testing with NumPy and Pandas to be very useful. I also did a short presentation about data analysis testing at PyCon Canada 2016: Automate Your Data Analysis Testing.

Solution 2 - Unit Testing

you can use pandas testing functions:

It will give more flexbile to compare your result with computed result in different ways.

For example:



For more details refer this">link</a>

Solution 3 - Unit Testing

I don't think it's hard to create small DataFrames for unit testing?

import pandas as pd
from import assert_dict_equal

input_df = pd.DataFrame.from_dict({
    'field_1': [some, values],
    'field_2': [other, values]
expected = {
    'result': [...]
assert_dict_equal(expected, my_func(input_df).to_dict(), "oops, there's a bug...")

Solution 4 - Unit Testing

I would suggest writing the values as CSV in docstrings (or separate files if they're large) and parsing them using pd.read_csv(). You can parse the expected output from CSV too, and compare, or else use df.to_csv() to write a CSV out and diff it.

Solution 5 - Unit Testing

You could use snapshottest and do something like this:

def test_something_works(snapshot): # snapshot is a pytest fixture from snapshottest
    data_frame = calc_something_and_return_pandas_dataframe()
    snapshot.assert_match(data_frame.to_csv(index=False), 'some_module_level_unique_name_for_the_snapshot')

This will create a snapshots folder with a file in that contains the csv output that you can update with --snapshot-update when your code changes.

It works by comparing the data_frame variable to what is saved to disk.

Might be worth mentioning that your snapshots should be checked in to source control.

Solution 6 - Unit Testing

If you are using pytest, pandasSnapshot will be useful.

# use with pytest
import pandas as pd
from snapshottest_ext.dataframe import PandasSnapshot

def test_format(snapshot):
    df = pd.DataFrame([['a', 'b'], ['c', 'd']],
                      columns=['col 1', 'col 2'])

One big cons is that the snapshot is not readable anymore. (store the content as csv is more readable, but it is problematic.

PS: I am the author of pytest snapshot extension.

Solution 7 - Unit Testing

The frame-fixtures Python package (of which I am an author) is designed to make it easy to "create a new dataframe (with values populated)" for unit or performance tests.

For example, if you want to test against a DataFrame of floats and strings with a numerical index, you can use a compact string declaration to generate a DataFrame.

>>> ff.Fixture.to_frame('i(I,int)|v(float,str)|s(4,2)').to_pandas()
              0     1
 34715  1930.40  zaji
-3648  -1760.34  zJnC
 91301  1857.34  zDdR
 30205  1699.34  zuVU

>>> ff.Fixture.to_frame('i(I,int)|v(float,str)|s(8,3)').to_pandas()
               0     1        2
 34715   1930.40  zaji   694.30
-3648   -1760.34  zJnC   -72.96
 91301   1857.34  zDdR  1826.02
 30205   1699.34  zuVU   604.10
 54020    268.96  zKka  1080.40
 129017  3511.58  zJXD  2580.34
 35021   1175.36  zPAQ   700.42
 166924  2925.68  zyps  3338.48

Solution 8 - Unit Testing

Pandas has built in testing functions, but I don't find the output easy to parse, so I created an open source project called beavis with functions that output error messages that are easier for humans to read.

Here's an example of one of the built in testing methods:

df = pd.DataFrame({"col1": [1042, 2, 9, 6], "col2": [5, 2, 7, 6]})
pd.testing.assert_series_equal(df["col1"], df["col2"])

Here's the error message:

>   ???
E   AssertionError: Series are different
E   Series values are different (50.0 %)
E   [index]: [0, 1, 2, 3]
E   [left]:  [1042, 2, 9, 6]
E   [right]: [5, 2, 7, 6]

Not very easy to see which rows are mismatched because the output isn't aligned.

Here's how you can write the same test with beavis.

import beavis

beavis.assert_pd_column_equality(df, "col1", "col2")

This'll give you the following readable error message:

Columns not equal error

The built-in assert_frame_equal doesn't give a readable error message either. Here's how you can compare DataFrame equality with beavis.

df1 = pd.DataFrame({'col1': [1, 2], 'col2': [3, 4]})
df2 = pd.DataFrame({'col1': [5, 2], 'col2': [3, 4]})
beavis.assert_pd_equality(df1, df2)

Beavis DataFrame equality


All content for this solution is sourced from the original question on Stackoverflow.

The content on this page is licensed under the Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0) license.

Content TypeOriginal AuthorOriginal Content on Stackoverflow
QuestionCodeGeek123View Question on Stackoverflow
Solution 1 - Unit TestingsechildsView Answer on Stackoverflow
Solution 2 - Unit TestingMohamed Thasin ahView Answer on Stackoverflow
Solution 3 - Unit TestingrtkaletaView Answer on Stackoverflow
Solution 4 - Unit TestingJohn ZwinckView Answer on Stackoverflow
Solution 5 - Unit TestingClintmView Answer on Stackoverflow
Solution 6 - Unit TestingechoView Answer on Stackoverflow
Solution 7 - Unit TestingflexatoneView Answer on Stackoverflow
Solution 8 - Unit TestingPowersView Answer on Stackoverflow