# Difference between IN and ANY operators in SQL

SqlOperatorsAny## Sql Problem Overview

What is the difference between `IN`

and `ANY`

operators in SQL?

## Sql Solutions

## Solution 1 - Sql

```
SQL>
SQL> -- Use the ANY operator in a WHERE clause to compare a value with any of the values in a list.
SQL>
```

**SQL> -- You must place an =, <>, <, >, <=, or >= operator before ANY.**

```
SQL> SELECT *
2 FROM employee
3 WHERE salary > ANY (2000, 3000, 4000);
```

For In Operator

```
SQL> -- Use the IN operator in a WHERE clause to compare a value with any of the values in a list.
SQL> SELECT *
2 FROM employee
3 WHERE salary IN (2000, 3000, 4000);
```

**But with the IN operator you cannot use =, <>, <, >, <=, or >=**

## Solution 2 - Sql

* IN* - Equal to anything in the list

* ANY* - Compares value to

*each*value returned by the sub query.

* ALL* - Compares value to

*every*value returned by the sub query.

For example:

#### IN:

Display the details of all employees whose salaries are matching with the least investments of departments?

```
Select Ename, Sal, Deptno
from Emp
Where Sal IN (Select Min(Sal)
From Emp
Group By Deptno);
```

#### ANY:

> `< ANY`

means less than the maximum value in the list.

Get the details of all employees who are earning less than the highest earning manager?

```
Select Empno, Ename, Job, Sal
From Emp
Where Sal < Any (Select Distinct MGR
From Emp);
```

> `> ANY`

means more than the minimum value in the list.

Get the details of all employees who are earning more than the least paid in Department 10?

```
Select Empno, Ename, Job, Sal
From Emp
Where Sal > Any (Select Min(Sal)
From Emp
Where Deptno 10);
```

> `= ANY`

is equivalent to in operator.

Note: `SOME`

can also be used instead of `ANY`

.

## Solution 3 - Sql

Maybe for better understanding, these two conditions are equivalent. It's a matter of taste which one you use (provided the RDBMS supports both of them)

```
... WHERE x IN (SELECT Y FROM THE_TABLE)
... WHERE x =ANY (SELECT Y FROM THE_TABLE)
```

and these also

```
... WHERE x NOT IN (SELECT Y FROM THE_TABLE)
... WHERE x <>ALL (SELECT Y FROM THE_TABLE)
```

Actually my personal habit is to use `IN`

for list expression (like `WHERE x IN (2,4,6,8)`

and `=ANY`

, resp. `<>ALL`

for sub-queries.

## Solution 4 - Sql

**While using all**

SELECT empno, sal FROM emp WHERE sal > ALL (2000, 3000, 4000);

```
EMPNO SAL
```

```
7839 5000
```

It will return result equivalent to query:

SELECT empno, sal FROM emp WHERE sal > 2000 AND sal > 3000 AND sal > 4000;

**While using any**

SELECT empno, sal FROM emp WHERE sal > ANY (2000, 3000, 4000);

```
EMPNO SAL
```

```
7566 2975
7698 2850
7782 2450
7788 3000
7839 5000
7902 3000
```

Returns a result same as

SELECT empno, sal FROM emp WHERE sal > 2000 OR sal > 3000 OR sal > 4000;

## Solution 5 - Sql

With ANY, you need an operator:

```
WHERE X > ANY (SELECT Y FROM Z)
```

With IN, you can't. It's always testing for equality.

## Solution 6 - Sql

ANY and ALL OPERATOR IN SQL SERVER 2008R2.

Using the > comparison operator as an example, >ALL means greater than every value--in other words, greater than the maximum value. For example, >ALL (1, 2, 3) means greater than 3. >ANY means greater than at least one value, that is, greater than the minimum. So >ANY (1, 2, 3) means greater than 1.

Similarly, >ANY means that for a row to satisfy the condition specified in the outer query, the value in the column that introduces the subquery must be greater than at least one of the values in the list of values returned by the subquery.

## Solution 7 - Sql

IN - It is easy to understand. The query should select only those values which are specified in 'IN' clause. Now, let us understand 'ANY' with a query. ANY means it should be greater or less than any of the values in the list.

Assume a Orders table which has OrderID from 1 to 10

Observer the below query:

select OrderID from Orders

where OrderID < ANY (3,5,7)

The answer to above query is :

OrderID

1,2,3,4,5,6

Explanation :The query says find OrderIDs which are less than ANY of the specified values. So the database searches and includes OrderID as follows:

Is 1<3- Yes hence OrderID 1 is included

Is 2<3- Yes hence OrderID 2 is included

Is 3<3- No, is 3<5 -Yes (as 5 is specified value), hence OrderID 3 is included

Is 4<3- No, is 4<5 -Yes, hence OrderID 4 is included

Is 5<3- No, is 5<5 -No, is 5<7(as 5 is specified value)-Yes hence OrderID 5 is included

Is 6<3- No, is 6<5 -No, is 6<7-Yes hence OrderID 6 is included

Is 7<3- No, is 7<5 -No, is 7<7-No hence OrderID 7 is NOT included as no more values in specified list to compare

Is 8<3- No, is 8<5 -No, is 8<7-No hence OrderID 8 is NOT included as no more values in specified list to compare

Is 9<3- No, is 9<5 -No, is 9<7-No hence OrderID 9 is NOT included as no more values in specified list to compare

Is 9<3- No, is 9<5 -No, is 9<7-No hence OrderID 9 is NOT included as no more values in specified list to compare

Apply the same logic for greater than

select OrderID from Orders

where OrderID > ANY (3,5,7)

The answer to above query is :

OrderID

4,5,6,7,8,9,10

## Solution 8 - Sql

The ANY and ALL operators are used with a WHERE or HAVING clause.

The ANY operator returns true if any of the subquery values meet the condition.

The ALL operator returns true if all of the subquery values meet the condition.

## Solution 9 - Sql

**= ANY** is equivalent to IN operator. "<>, <, >, <=, or >=" one of them can be placed before ANY operator.
Note that the <> ANY operator is different from NOT IN.

The ANY and ALL operators are used with a WHERE or HAVING clause.

The ANY operator returns true if any of the subquery values meet the condition.

The ALL operator returns true if all of the subquery values meet the condition.

## Solution 10 - Sql

When we are comparing any column value using "IN" some set say `{value1,value2 ...}`

then the column value must be present in the set but in case of ANY we compare like this:

```
col.value > ANY ({value1,value2,...})
```

then the value must be greater than any one of the set value.

in case of "ALL"

```
col.value> ALL({value1,value2,...})
```

the value must be greater than all the values in the set.

Refer to the following images for better understanding:

## Solution 11 - Sql

(in) is a special kind of operator which is use to pick value one by one from list of values which we have specified.while (any) is use with where clause